Founder of carbon dating

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For example, if the concentration of carbon-14 in the remains of an organism is half of the natural concentration of carbon-14, a scientist would estimate that the organism died about 5,730 years ago, the half-life of carbon-14.There are nearly ten million known carbon compounds and an entire branch of chemistry, known as organic chemistry, is devoted to their study.But new research shows that commonly accepted radiocarbon dating standards can miss the mark -- calling into question historical timelines.Archaeologist Sturt Manning and colleagues have revealed variations in the radiocarbon cycle at certain periods of time, affecting frequently cited standards used in archaeological and historical research relevant to the southern Levant region, which includes Israel, southern Jordan and Egypt.A fourth allotrope of carbon, known as white carbon, was produced in 1969.

Although carbon-14 decays into nitrogen-14 through beta decay, the amount of carbon-14 in the environment remains constant because new carbon-14 is always being created in the upper atmosphere by cosmic rays.

This black soot, also known as lampblack, gas black, channel black or carbon black, is used to make inks, paints and rubber products.

It can also be pressed into shapes and is used to form the cores of most dry cell batteries, among other things.

Graphite, one of the softest materials known, is a form of carbon that is primarily used as a lubricant.

Although it does occur naturally, most commercial graphite is produced by treating petroleum coke, a black tar residue remaining after the refinement of crude oil, in an oxygen-free oven.

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