Dating of the book of isaiah
The destruction of Babylon is prophesied and the return of the exiles to their homeland is promised.
The servant-of-Yahweh songs in Deutero-Isaiah (42:1–4; 49:1–6; 50:4–9; –) have generated animated discussions among scholars, but the ideas reflected in the songs suggest that they were written under the influence of the ideology of the king—the anointed one who, through his righteous rule, had the power to effect his people’s deliverance.
The tables are in chronological order in reference to how they read in the Bible.
This table summarises the chronology of the main tables and serves as a guide to the historical periods mentioned.
He was convinced that only an unshakable trust in Yahweh, rather than in political or military alliances, could protect Judah and Jerusalem from the advances of their enemies—specifically, in this period, the Assyrians.
He called for a recognition of the sovereignty of Yahweh and passionately denounced anything that worked against or obscured Yahweh’s purposes—from social injustices to meaningless cultic observances.
Chapters 40–66 are much later in origin and therefore known as Deutero-Isaiah (Second Isaiah).
But some of the language and theology point to a much later date, from an unknown author using Paul's name.c. The elegance of the Greek and the sophistication of the theology do not fit the genuine Pauline epistles, but the mention of Timothy in the conclusion led to its being included with the Pauline group from an early date.c. This is apparently the latest writing in the New Testament, quoting from Jude, assuming a knowledge of the Pauline letters, and including a reference to the gospel story of the Transfiguration of Christ. The references to "brother of James" and to "what the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ foretold" suggest that it was written after the apostolic letters were in circulation, but before 2 Peter, which uses it.How the three “Isaiahs” came together is not known.The four tables give the most commonly accepted dates or ranges of dates for the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible, the Deuterocanonical books (included in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox bibles, but not in the Hebrew and Protestant bibles) and the New Testament, including, where possible, hypotheses about their formation-history. Table II treats the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible books, grouped according to the divisions of the Hebrew Bible with occasional reference to scholarly divisions. Table IV gives the books of the New Testament, including the earliest preserved fragments for each.Much of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament may have been assembled in the 5th century BCE.The five books are drawn from four "sources" (distinct schools of writers rather than individuals): the Priestly source, the Yahwist and the Elohist (these two are often referred to collectively as the "non-Priestly" source), and the Deuteronomist.