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(Equation 3) where image Hn .,, is the perceived image and OTF WJIt .,. Previous inves- tigations of these symbionts led to the presumption that they are marine species of the genus Chlorella, and that they are therefore related to similar algae associated with freshwater animals such as hydras i 1 * and sponges, whence the designation "zoochlorel- lae." But Chorella is a paraphyletic taxon; i.e., the species within it do not have a common origin. Lewis and Gisele Muller-Parker report on a phylogenetic analysis of 18S r DNA and the rbc L gene, which are encoded, respectively, by the nu- cleus and plastid of green symbionts isolated from Anthopleura elegantissima. ZIMMER PAMELA CLAPP HINKLE CAROL SCHACHINGER VICTORIA R. Japan University of North Carolina Greensboro University of Southern California Kewalo Marine Laboratory, University of Hawaii Institute of Neurobiology, University of Puerto Rico Tokyo Institute of Technology. BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN is indexed in bibliographic services including Index Medicus and MED- LINE. Printed on acid free paper, effective with Volume 180, Issue 1, 1991. Saburo Hosaka, a chairman of the Establishment of Tropical Marine Ecolog- ical Research (ETMER), and the staff of Akajimu Marine 86 K. and OTF eve are the optical transfer functions of the water and eye respectively. Thus, the identity of the green symbionts within Antlioplenm and their relationship with freshwater algae are in question. The results suggest that these symbionts are members of a well-supported but highly divergent clade comprising species of small, spherical green algae both symbiotic and free-living which are distinct from species of Chorellci in freshwater. GIBSON LAURA RELTER The Whitney Laboratory, University of Florida Grice Marine Laboratory, College of Charleston California Institute of Technology Georgia State University University of Chicago Marine Biological Laboratory ENSR Marine & Coastal Center. Japan National Institute for Basic Biology, Japan Marine Biomed. of Texas Medical Branch University of Maine, Orono University of California, Santa Barbara University of New England, Biddeford, Maine University of California, Los Angeles Managing Editor Assistant Managing Editor Staff Editor Subscription & Advertising Administrator Published by MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY WOODS HOLE, MASSACHUSETTS VOLUME 207, No. Subscriptions and similar matter should be addressed to Subscription Administrator. Subscription includes both print and online journals. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to THE BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN, Marine Biological Laboratory, 7 MBL Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543. receptor and ion chan- nel targets, and drug design: 50 million years of neuropharmacology. KOIKE ET AL Science Laboratory ( AMSL) for access to their collection of specimens. Lirdwitayaprasit Thaithaworn, Chulalongkorn University, and Dr. Setsuko Sakamoto, National Research Institute of Fisheries and En- vironment of Inland Sea, for supplying cultures. The MTF is quite useful because it gives the fraction of remain- ing image contrast as a function of spatial frequency. MTF(4) = 0.5 implies that 50' r of the original image contrast remains for detail that has a spatial fre- quency of 4 cycles per degree. The two were chosen to provide a range of photophore spacing. Non-illuminating portions of the ani- mals are shown as black because this is how they appear against the downwelling light (Johnsen, 2002). In the silhouette chosen, the fins and appendages were ex- tended to examine their effect on visibility. (B) The horned lanterntish Ceratoscopelus maderensis. The resolution of the images is low, and the photophore signals are slightly expanded due to "blooming" of the image at the detector array. Materials and Methods should be incorpo- rated into appropriate figure legends. The Editorial Board requests that regular manuscripts con- form to the requirements set below: those manuscripts that do not conform will be returned to authors for correction before review. (Xerox copies of photographs are not acceptable for review pur- poses.) Please include an electronic copy of the text of the manu- script. It is unclear how the proboscis generates the pressure necessary to propel the tooth into prey. Imcigex examined Images of the ventral bioluminescence of two counter- illuminating species were used: ( 1 ) the enoploteuthid squid Abralia veranyi (Ruppell, 1844) (eye-flash squid), and (2) the myctophid fish Ceratoscopelns maderensis (Gunther. The backgrounds were set to a brightness equal to the average brightness of the counterilluminating animal (minus the fins, arms, and tentacles in the case of the squid). In addi- tion, although Counterillumination is more stable than other bioluminescent signals, the images are static representations of potentially variable light emission. reranvi was not lit in the studied image (Herring et til., 1992). nuulerensis, all the ventral photophores were emitting during the image expo- sure. Label the disk with the name of the tirst author and the name and version of the wordprocessing software used to create the tile. One pos- sibility is that the muscles of the proboscis contract the fluid-filled lumen to generate pressure. Due to the convolution theorem, the OTF of a whole system is simply the product of the OTFs of the various components in the system (Goodman, 1W6). Having different species as neighbors also may influence feeding success. But the anemones on the cover are obviously living together and, indeed, could be clone mates; so the basis for the distribu- tion of symbiont types is still uncertain. these symbioses might allow us to better understand glo- bally important ecological problems such as coral bleach- ing, which is triggered by the evacuation of zooxanthellae from the host. Thus, for this study image,,,,,, = OTF u ,, r OTF J. Feeding performance was higher in mixed assem- blages of three species of hydropsychid caddisfly larvae than in species monocultures (Cardinale el \, G. Also obscure is the taxonomy of the green algal symbionts in Antlioplenm species. Elsevier BIOBASE/Current Awareness in Biological Sciences, and Geo Abstracts. Acknowledgments The authors express their thanks to Mr.
1 ) (Equation 1 ) where * denotes convolution, and ,f(f) and 3- '(/) are the Fourier and inverse Fourier transforms of an image / (Good- man. Let /| be the image of the counterillumination, and / ; be the point spread function. then the slopes among spac- ing treatments would have been set as equal to each other, and the intercepts would have been compared using the following: (Equation 2) where j8 is the common slope for all levels of the spacing factor. For example, phoronids are not colonial, hut these lophophorate suspension feeders can live in very dense aggregations (up to 20,000 m~ 2 ) (Johnson, 1997). For more information about subscribing or activating your online subscription, visit . The laser feedback and stabilizii system provides more ' REAL-TIME OBSERVATION high-resolution imaging. Functional morphology of the Conus proboscis (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Then the cells were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde in cacodylate buffer (O. 1 M sucrose, p H 7.6) tor 4 h at 4 C, and washed with the same buffer three times. Online readers may want to sign up for the e TOC (electronic Table of Contents) service, which will deliver each new issue's, table of contents via e-mail. The effects are modeled with Monte Carlo methods and image transfer theory, using data col- lected from water types ranging from shallow coastal water to the deep mesopelagic zone (800 m). Juvenile and adult animals are kept in shallow water tables supplied with flowing seawater. Porites compressa, collected from the field 1-2 times per month. Similar modulating effects of LD on circatidal loco- motor rhythms have been observed in some species of crabs (19) but not in others (28). pol\phemus can exhibit clear circatidal rhythms in locomotion in the laboratory, even during nonbreeding times of years (November-Febru- ary). Advance the performance level of your digital imaging system to new heights - with revolu- tionary ease, speed and cost-effectiveness. The journal is aimed at a general readership, and especially invites articles about those novel phenomena and contexts characteristic of intersecting fields. (strain CS-156) after SLL-2 treatment and in control wells, (a) Actively swimming CS-156 cells are in rapid motion and are blurred on this image (control), (b) CS-156 with SLL-2 treatment (day 3. loch- nioilcs was uniform strongly suggest that some selection analogous to our experiment had taken place in the coral- algae system. The web site also provides access to information about the journal (such as Instructions to Authors, the Editorial Board, and subscription information), as well as access to the Marine Biological Laboratory's web site and other Biological Bulletin electronic publications. Three visual sys- tems, with high, medium, and low acuity, are also exam- ined. For this research, egg masses laid on the coral by adult P. In the field, the appearance of millions of horseshoe crabs along the eastern seaboard, primarily during April through July, clearly indicates a strong seasonal preference for mating. pol\phemits has been reported to be much less active at other times of the year (18) and, in winter, either to burrow in the mud in or around estuaries or to move to the open ocean where it has been found far out on the conti- nental shelf (29). The Biological Bulletin Online contains the full content of each issue of the journal, T --'-i^\iding Tafrfigur.e$-a-ntd tables, beginning i*- :; witl Vthe February 200 1 'issue (Volume 200, .. The full text is searchable by keyword, and the cited References include hyperlinks to Meclline. 100 /u.g ml"') shows only coccoid-form cells and numerous dividing cells (arrows). and CS-156) used in the present experiments belong to different clades (A, B, and F, respectively) (17, 18). Therefore, further experiments using an actual Symbiodinium isolate of the coral or a culture of clade C will be of interest. The correct OTF for objects being viewed from below is obtained by normalizing the original OTF so that OTF(O) equals e~ (c ~ KLJ} * (Mertens, 1970). veranyi was collected at depth, using the Johnson-Sea-Link research submersible fitted with 1 1 -liter acrylic plastic cylinders with hydraulically activated, sliding lids. maderensis was col- lected at night, using an opening/closing Tucker trawl (4.3-nr opening, Vi inch knotless nylon mesh) fitted with a thermally insulated collecting container. (F) Counterillumination of C maderensis as viewed from below against the downwelling light. Background in (E) and (F) is set to the average brightness of the counterilluminating animal. The functional morphology of a ventral photophore from the mesopelagic squid, Abralia trigmuira. It should open with a summary paragraph of 150 to 200 words comprising the introduction and the conclusions. By the time a paper is sent to the press, all nucleotide or amino acid sequences and associated alignments should have been deposited in u generally accessible database (e.g., Gen Bank. Reprints normally will be delivered about 2 to 3 months after the issue date. (October 2004) 2004 Marine Biological Laboratory The Projectile Tooth of a Fish-Hunting Cone Snail: Conns catus Injects Venom Into Fish Prey Using a High-Speed Ballistic Mechanism JOSEPH R. able to retain control of the stung fish prey while retracting. Thus the final equation for the propagation of images viewed from below is image fina ,(.v) OTF, V ^linviop \.\ f -(c-Ku) . Specimens were manually stimulated to bioluminesce. and then were re- corded with a Dage ISIT image-intensified video camera (A. Panel B courtesy of Marine Biological Laboratory Digital Archive, Flescher Fish Collection. The rest of the text should continue on without subheadings, and there should be no more than 30 references. EMBL, Swiss Prot), and the sequence accession number should be provided. Authors will receive page proofs of articles shortly before publication. The paralyzed fish is then engulfed whole, thus completing the feeding sequence.